可持续的保护方法

The traditional approach to conservation is to establish a protected area and relocate the local people outside the park boundary because they are seen as separate from the local ecosystem. Future Generations, on the other hand, 实践社区保护, which seeks to protect larger areas of land by encouraging local stewardship and integrating social and environmental priorities. Community-based conservation was first advocated at the 1982 World National Parks Congress with the promotion of the biosphere reserves model, 在支持经济发展的同时保护生物和文化多样性. In the decades since, 关于如何最好地进行基于社区的保护,以及这种方法是否具有持久的价值和影响的争论越来越多.

Future Generations is currently gathering data on the impact of several areas where community-based conservation efforts have taken place, 包括尼泊尔的巴润谷. 正在制定新的地方管理的生态旅游计划, BG体育综合网页版正在记录这些新机遇对环境和社会的影响. BG体育综合网页版的办法是通过参与性和地方主导的办法确定监测进展情况的关键指标.

在喜马拉雅地区建立国家公园

In the late 1980s, “未来世代”组织当地合作伙伴在尼泊尔建立了重要的国家公园和自然保护区, Tibet/China, and Arunachal Pradesh, India. 20年的社区保护工作产生了指导后代方法的核心特征:

  • 当地人住在保护区内
  • Instead of hiring outside wardens, 社区被培训为管理员,学习保护概念和改善健康的技能, nutrition, governance, and income
  • Protected areas follow pre-existing political boundaries to promote ease of management and to increase the acreage under protection
  • 而不是一个集中的管理机构, costs are reduced and local ownership promoted by integrating conservation management into the daily functions of existing county and state administrative offices
  • 利用保护生物学的科学, 当地科学家和管理人员根据不同的土地用途(模仿生物圈保护区)对土地进行分类和管理, 按照核心限制区域划分土地使用, buffer zones, and sustainable use zones)
  • 这种方法在许多地方都取得了成功, but of particular importance is the 46 million acre Four Great Rivers ecological environment protection plan in southeastern Tibet, China. Using the above approach, 面积相当于华盛顿州, wildlife, trees, 还有800种濒临灭绝的植物,000 people.

社区保护的全球回顾

In 2007, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation commissioned Future Generations to conduct a global review on the scientific evidence relating to community-based conservation. 目的是更好地了解当地人民在以下方面的作用和贡献:

  • Conserving biodiversity
  • Managing natural resources
  • Meeting social needs, such as maintaining local culture, 增加创收机会, and improving health and well-being
  • Lowering management costs
  • Sustaining outcomes over time
  • 通过对全球文献的回顾和四个案例的分析, this report offers an analysis of current thinking and trends in community-based conservation that draws from the scientific literature.

Other Review Topics:

  • 对社区的经济成本和收益必须明确和具体, 并且有这样的价值来抵消预期的保护需求和牺牲.
  • Community as active partners in conservation needs linkages with outside groups as well as new local institutions to develop ongoing, adaptive capacity.
  • 采用包容性方法的地方保护机构可以对妇女的社会地位产生积极影响, health care, social capital, infrastructure, 以及可持续经济发展的选择.
  • 社区在执行当地规定的法规方面可以非常有效. 当社区接受保护目标时, 他们带来了知识和当地资源, 包括监视和社会控制.
  • Ongoing community partnership in conservation requires local partnerships and local management that is autonomous and adaptable to changing contexts.